We accept the Bible as our only creed and hold certain fundamental beliefs to be the teaching of the Holy Scriptures. These beliefs, as set forth here, constitute our church’s understanding and expression of the teaching of Scripture. Revision of these statements may be expected at a “General Conference” session when the church body is led by the Holy Spirit to a fuller understanding of Bible truth or finds better language in which to express the teachings of God’s Holy Word.


1. The Holy Scriptures.

The Holy Scriptures, which encompass the Old and New Testaments, constitute the written Word of God, transmitted by divine inspiration through holy men of God who spoke and wrote being driven by the Holy Spirit. Through this word, God has communicated to human beings the knowledge necessary to achieve salvation. The Holy Scriptures are the infallible revelation of the divine will. They are the norm of character, the criterion for evaluating experience, the authoritative revelation of doctrines, and a reliable record of the acts of God performed in the course of history (2 Peter 1: 20-21, 2 Timothy 3:16). -17; Psalm 119: 105; Proverbs 30: 5-6; Isaiah 8:20; John 17:17; 1 Thessalonians 2:13; Hebrews 4:12).

2. The Trinity.

There is only one God, who is a unity of three coeternal persons: Father, Son and Holy Spirit. This one and triune God is immortal, almighty, omniscient, superior to all and omnipresent. It is infinite and escapes human comprehension, nevertheless, it can be known through the revelation it has made of itself. It is eternally worthy of reverence, worship and service on the part of all creation (Deuteronomy 6: 4, Matthew 28:19, 2 Corinthians 13:14, Ephesians 4: 4-6, 1 Peter 1: 2, 1 Timothy 1:17 ; Revelation 14: 7).

3. The Father.

God the Eternal Father, is the Creator, Origin, Sustainer and Sovereign of all creation. He is just, holy, merciful and merciful, slow to anger and abundant in love and faithfulness. The qualities and powers of the Father are also manifested in the Son and the Holy Spirit (Genesis 1: 1, Revelation 4:11, 1 Corinthians 15:28, John 3:16, 1 John 4: 8, 1 Timothy 1:17 ; Exodus 34: 6-7; John 14: 9).

4. The Son.

God the Eternal Son is one with the Father. Through him all things were created; He reveals the character of God, carries out the salvation of humanity and judges the world. Although he is truly God, everlasting, he also became truly man, Jesus the Christ. It was conceived by the Holy Spirit and was born of the Virgin Mary. He lived and experienced temptations as a human being, but perfectly exemplified the justice and love of God. Through his miracles he manifested the power of God and they testified that he was the promised Messiah of God. He suffered and voluntarily died on the cross for our sins and in our place, rose from the dead and ascended to the Father to minister in the heavenly sanctuary on our behalf. He will return again with power and glory to finally liberate his people and restore all things (John 1: 1-3, 14, Colossians 1: 15-19, John 10:30, 14: 9, Romans 6:23, 2 Corinthians 5: 17-19, John 5:22, Luke 1:35, Philippians 2: 5-11, 1 Corinthians 15: 3-4, Hebrews 2: 9-18, 8: 1-2, John 14: 1 -3).

5. The Holy Spirit.

God the Eternal Spirit was active with the Father and the Son in creation, incarnation and redemption. He inspired the authors of the Scriptures. It infused power into the life of Christ. Attracts and convinces human beings; and to those who respond, renew and transform the image of God. Sent by the Father and the Son is always with his children, distributes spiritual gifts to the church, enables her to bear witness in favor of Christ, and in harmony with the Scriptures leads her to all truth (Genesis 1: 1-2; Luke 1:35; 4:18; Acts 10:38; 2 Peter 1:21; 2 Corinthians 3:18; Ephesians 4: 11-12; Acts 1: 8; John 14: 16-18, 26; 15: 26- 27; 16: 7-13).


6. The creation.

God is the Creator of all things, and has revealed through the Scriptures an authentic record of his creative activity. The Lord did in six days “the heavens and the earth” and every living thing that inhabits it, and rested on the seventh day of the first week. In this way he established the Sabbath as a perpetual monument to the completion of his creative work. The first man and the first woman were made in the image of God as a crown of creation; They were given dominion over the world and the responsibility to take care of it. When the world was finished it was “very good” because it declared the glory of God (Genesis 1: 2, Exodus 20: 8-11, Psalm 19: 1-6, 33: 6, 9, 104, Hebrews 11: 3).

7. The nature of man.

Man and woman were made in the image of God, with their own individuality and with the faculty and freedom to think and act on their own. Although they were created as free beings, each one is an indivisible unit of body, mind and spirit that depends on God for life, breath and everything else. When our first parents disobeyed God, they denied their dependence on him and fell from the high position they held under the government of God. The image of God was disfigured in them and they were subject to death. Their descendants participate in this degraded nature and its consequences. They are born with weaknesses and tendencies to evil. But God, in Christ, reconciled the world to himself, and through his Spirit restores in the penitent mortals the image of his Maker. Created for the glory of God, they are invited to love the Lord and love each other, and to care for the environment that surrounds them (Genesis 1: 26-28; 2: 7; Psalm 8: 4-8; Acts 17: 24-28; Genesis 3, Psalm 51: 5, Romans 5: 12-17, 2 Corinthians 5: 19-20, Psalm 51:10, 1 John 4: 7-8, 11, 20, Genesis 2:15).


8. The great conflict.

The whole humanity is involved in a conflict of extraordinary proportions between Christ and Satan around the character of God, his law and his sovereignty over the universe. This conflict originated in heaven when a created being, endowed with free will, exalted himself and became Satan, the adversary of God, and instigated to rebel a portion of the Angels. He introduced the spirit of rebellion into this world when he induced Adam and Eve to sin. Sin resulted in the distortion of the image of God in humanity, the upheaval of the created world and then its complete devastation on the occasion of the universal flood. Observed by all of creation, this world became the battlefield of the universal conflict, at the end of which the God of love will finally be vindicated. To help his people in this conflict, Christ sends the Holy Spirit and the loyal angels to guide, protect and sustain him on the path of salvation (Revelation 12: 4-9; Isaiah 14: 12-14; Ezekiel 28: 12-18, Genesis 3, Romans 1: 19-32, 5: 12-21, 8: 19-22, Genesis 6-8, 2 Peter 3: 6, 1 Corinthians 4: 9, Hebrews 1:14) .

9. The life, death and resurrection of Christ.

Through the life of Christ, of perfect obedience to the will of God, his sufferings, his death and his resurrection, God provided the only valid means to atone for the sin of humanity, so that those who by faith accept this atonement may have access to eternal life, and all creation can better understand the infinite and holy love of the Creator. This perfect atonement vindicates the justice of God’s law and the benignity of his character, because he condemns our sin and at the same time makes provision for our forgiveness. The death of Christ is vicarious and expiatory, reconciling and transforming. The resurrection of Christ proclaims the triumph of God over the forces of evil, and to those who accept the atonement assures them of the final victory over sin and death. Declare the lordship of Jesus Christ, before whom every knee will bow in heaven and on earth (John 3:16, Isaiah 53, 1 Peter 2: 21-22, 1 Corinthians 15: 3-4, 20-22, 2 Corinthians 5: 14-15, 19-21, Romans 1: 4, 3:25, 4:25, 8: 3-4, 1 John 2: 2, 4:10, Galatians 2:15, Philippians 2: 6-11 ).

10. The experience of salvation.

With infinite love and mercy God made Christ, who knew no sin, be made sin for us, so that we could be made the righteousness of God in him. Guided by the Holy Spirit, we feel our need, we recognize our sinfulness, we repent of our transgressions, and we exercise faith in Jesus as Lord and Christ, as Substitute and Example. This faith that receives salvation comes to us through the divine power of the Word and is a gift of God’s grace. Through Christ we are justified, adopted as sons and daughters of God and freed from the lordship of sin. Through the Spirit we are born again and sanctified; The Spirit renews our minds, engraves the law of love of God in our hearts and empowers us to live a holy life. By remaining in him we are partakers of the divine nature and we have the assurance of salvation now and on the occasion of judgment. (2 Corinthians 5: 17-21; John 3:16; Galatians 1: 4; 4: 4-7; Titus 3: 3-7; John 16: 8; Galatians 3: 13-14; 1 Peter 2: 21- 22, Romans 10:17, Luke 17: 5, Mark 9: 23-24, Ephesians 2: 5-10, Romans 3: 21-26, Colossians 1: 13-14, Romans 8: 14-17, Galatians 3: 26; John 3: 3-8; 1 Peter 1:23; Romans 12: 2; Hebrews 8: 7-12; Ezekiel 36: 25-27; 2 Peter 1: 3-4; Romans 8: 1-4; 5 : 6-10)


11. Growth in Christ.

New fundamental belief approved on July 4, 2005, at the 58th Assembly of the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists.

By his death on the cross Jesus triumphed over the forces of evil. He subjugated the spirits of demons during His earthly ministry and broke their power and made certain their final destiny. The victory of Jesus gives us victory over the forces of evil that continue to control us, while we walk with Him in peace, joy, and with the certainty of His love. Now the Holy Spirit lives with us and empowers us. Continually committed to Jesus as our Savior and Lord, we are free from the burden of our past deeds. No more will we live in darkness, with fear of the powers of evil, ignorance, and the lack of meaning of our old way of life. In that new freedom in Jesus, we are more than ever called to resemble His character, communing with Him daily in prayer, feeding on His Word, meditating on that and His providence, singing his praises, gathering together in worship, and participating in the mission of the Church. As we surrender ourselves to the service of love to those around us and to the testimony of His salvation, His constant presence with us through the Spirit transforms every moment and every task into a spiritual experience (Psalms 1: 1, 2, 23: 4; 77:11, 12; Colossians 1:13, 14; 2: 6, 14, 15; Luke 10: 17-20; Ephesians 5:19, 20; 6: 12-18; I Thessalonians 5:23; II Peter 2: 9, 3:18, II Corinthians 3:17, 18, Philippians 3: 7-14, I Thessalonians 5: 16-18, Matthew 20: 25-28, John 20:21, Galatians 5: 22-25, Romans 8:38, 39, I John 4: 4, Hebrews 10:25).

12. church.

The church is the community of believers who confess Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior. In continuity with the people of God of the Old Testament, we are invited to leave the world; and we gather to worship and be in communion with one another, to receive instruction in the Word, celebrating the Lord’s Supper, to serve all humanity and proclaim the gospel throughout the world. The church derives its authority from Christ, who is the incarnate Word, and the Scriptures which are the written Word. The church is God’s family: we are adopted by Him as children and live on the basis of the new covenant. The church is the body of Christ, a community of faith of which Christ Himself is the head. The church is the bride for whom Christ died to sanctify and cleanse her. His return in triumph, He will present a glorious church, that is to say, the faithful of all ages, acquired through his blood, without spot or wrinkle, holy and blameless (Genesis 12: 3; Acts 7:38; Ephesians 4 : 11-15; 3: 08.11; 28: 19-20; 16: 13-20; 18:18; Eph 2: 19-22; 1: 22-23; 5: 23-27; Col. 1: 17-18).

13. The Remnant and its mission.

The universal church is composed of all who truly believe in Christ, but in recent days, a time of widespread apostasy, has been called a remnant to keep the commandments of God and the faith of Jesus. This remnant announces the judgment hour, proclaims salvation through Christ, and heralds the approach of His second coming. This proclamation is symbolized by the three angels of Revelation 14; coincides with the time of judgment in heaven and results in a work of repentance and reform on earth. Every believer is called to personally participate in this worldwide witness (Revelation 12:17; 14: 6-12; 18: 1-4; 2 Corinthians 5:10; Jude 3, 14; 1 Peter 1: 16-19, 2 Peter 3: 10-14; Rev. 21: 1-14).

14. The unity of the body of Christ.

The church is a body made up of many members who come from every nation, race, language and people. In Christ we are a new creation; the differences of race, culture, education and nationality, between high and low, rich and poor, men and women, we must not cause divisions among us. We are all equal in Christ, who by one Spirit has united us in communion with him and with one another. We must serve and be served without partiality or reservations. Through the revelation of Jesus Christ in the Scriptures we share in the same faith and hope, and we go out to give everyone the same testimony. This unity has its origins in the oneness of the triune God, who has adopted us as his children (Romans 12: 4-5, 1 Corinthians 12: 12-14, Matthew 28: 19-20, Psalm 133: 1: 2 Corinthians 5 : 16-17, Acts 17: 26-27, Galatians 3:27, 29, Colossians 3: 10-15, Ephesians 4: 14-16, 4: 1-6, John 17: 20-23).

15. Baptism.

Through baptism we confess our faith in the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ, and we bear witness to our death to sin and our purpose to walk in newness of life. In this way we recognize Christ as our Lord and Savior, we become his people and we are received as members of his church. Baptism is a symbol of our union with Christ, the forgiveness of our sins and our reception of the Holy Spirit. It is done by immersion in water, and is intimately linked with an affirmation of faith in Jesus and with evidences of repentance from sin. Follow the instruction in the Holy Scriptures and the acceptance of his teachings (Romans 6: 1-6, Colossians 2: 12-13, Acts 16: 30-33, 22:16, 2:38, Matthew 28: 19-20 ).

16. The Lord’s Supper.

The Lord’s Supper is a participation in the emblems of the body and blood of Jesus as an expression of faith in him, our Lord and Savior. In this experience of communion Christ is present to meet his people and strengthen him. By participating in it, we joyfully proclaim the death of the Lord until he comes. Preparation for the Supper includes an examination of conscience, repentance and confession. The Master ordered the washing of the feet to manifest a renewed purification, to express a disposition to serve one another with Christian humility, and to unite our hearts in love. All Christian believers can participate in the service of communion (1 Corinthians 10: 16-17, 11: 23-30, Matthew 26: 17-30, Revelation 3:20, John 6: 48-63, 13: 1-17) .

17. The spiritual gifts and ministries.

God grants all members of his church in all ages spiritual gifts so that each one may use them in loving ministry for the common good of the church and humanity. Granted through the operation of the Holy Spirit, who distributes them among each member according to their will, the gifts provide all the ministries and skills necessary for the church to fulfill its divinely ordained function. According to the Scriptures these gifts include ministries such as faith, healing, prophecy, preaching, teaching, administration, reconciliation, compassion and selfless service and charity to help and encourage our fellow human beings. Some members are called by God and endowed by the Spirit to fulfill functions recognized by the church in the pastoral, evangelizing, apostolic and teaching ministries, particularly necessary in order to equip the members for service, to edify the church in a way that reaches spiritual maturity, and promote the unity of faith and knowledge of God. When members employ these spiritual gifts as faithful stewards of God’s many graces, the church is protected from the destructive influence of false doctrines, grows thanks to a development that proceeds from God, and is built on faith and love ( Romans 12: 4-8, 1 Corinthians 12: 9-11, 27-28, Ephesians 4: 8, 11-16, Acts 6: 1-7, 1 Timothy 3: 1-13, 1 Peter 4: 10-11 ).

18. The gift of prophecy.

One of the gifts of the Holy Spirit is that of prophecy. This gift is one of the distinguishing characteristics of the remnant church. The Bible is the standard by which all teaching and all experience must be evaluated. (Joel 2: 28-29, Acts 2: 14-21, Hebrews 1: 1-3, Revelation 12:17, 19:10)


19. The law of God.

The great principles of God’s law are incorporated into the Ten Commandments and exemplified in the life of Christ. They express God’s love, will and purpose with respect to human conduct and relationships, and are in effect for all human beings of all ages. These precepts constitute the basis of God’s covenant with his people and the norm of divine judgment. Through the work of the Holy Spirit they point to sin and enliven the need for a Savior. Salvation is only by grace and not by works, but its fruit is obedience to the commandments. This obedience develops Christian character and results in a sense of well-being. It is an evidence of our love for the Lord and concern for our fellow human beings. Obedience by faith demonstrates the power of Christ to transform lives and therefore strengthens Christian witness (Exodus 20: 1-17, Psalm 40: 7-8, Matthew 22: 36-40, Deuteronomy 28: 1-14, Matthew 5: 17-20, Hebrews 8: 8-10, John 15: 7-10, Ephesians 2: 8-10, 1 John 5: 3, Romans 8: 3-4, Psalm 19: 7-14).

20. Saturday.

The beneficent Creator rested on the seventh day after the six days of creation, and instituted the Sabbath for all men as a monument of his creative work. The fourth commandment of the immutable law of God requires the observance of the seventh day as a day of rest, worship and ministry, in harmony with the teachings and practice of Jesus, the Lord of the Sabbath. Saturday is a day of pleasant communion with God and with our brothers. It is a symbol of our redemption in Christ, a sign of sanctification, a demonstration of our loyalty and an anticipation of our eternal future in the kingdom of God. The Sabbath is the perpetual sign of God of the eternal covenant between him and his people. The joyful observance of this sacred time from evening to evening, from sunset to sunset, is a celebration of God’s creative and redemptive work (Genesis 2: 1-3, Exodus 20: 8-11, Luke 4: 16; Isaiah 56: 5-6; 58: 13-14; Matthew 12: 1-12; Exodus 31: 13-17; Ezekiel 20:12, 20; Hebrews 4: 1-11; Deuteronomy 5: 12-15; Leviticus 23:32; Mark 1:32).

21. Stewardship.

We are God’s stewards, to whom he has entrusted time and opportunities, capabilities and possessions, and the blessings of the earth and its resources. We are responsible to him for his proper employment. We recognize that God owns everything through our faithful service to him and our fellowmen, and through the return of tithes and offerings for the proclamation of his gospel and for the support and development of his church. Stewardship is a privilege that God has given us to grow in love and to achieve victory over selfishness and greed. The faithful steward rejoices over the blessings that others receive as a result of his faithfulness (Genesis 1: 26-28; 2:15; 1 Chronicles 29:14; Haggai 1: 3-11; Malachi 3: 8-12; 1 Corinthians 9: 9-14, Matthew 23:23, 2 Corinthians 8: 1-15, Romans 15: 26-27).

22. Christian behavior.

We are invited to be godly people who think, feel and act in harmony with the principles of heaven. For the Spirit to recreate in us the character of our Lord, we participate only in what produces Christian purity, health and joy in our lives. This means that our recreations and entertainment will be in harmony with the highest standards of Christian taste and beauty. Although we recognize the cultural differences, our clothing should be simple, modest and neat as befits those whose true beauty does not consist in the exterior ornament, but in the unfading ornament of a calm and peaceful spirit. It also means that since our bodies are the temple of the Holy Spirit, we must take care of them intelligently. Along with the proper practice of exercise and rest, we must adopt a diet as healthy as possible, and abstain from impure foods identified as such in the Scriptures. Since alcoholic beverages, tobacco, and the irresponsible use of drugs and narcotics are harmful to our bodies, we will also abstain from them. Instead, we will dedicate ourselves to everything that puts our thoughts and bodies in harmony with the discipline of Christ, who wants us to enjoy health, joy and all that is good (Romans 12: 1-2, 1 John 2: 6; Ephesians 5: 1-21, Philippians 4: 8, 2 Corinthians 10: 5, 6:14 – 7: 1, 1 Peter 3: 1-4, 1 Corinthians 6: 19-20, 10:31, Leviticus 11: 1 -47; 3 John 2).

23. Marriage and the family.

The marriage was established by God in Eden and confirmed by Jesus, to be a lifelong union between a man and a woman in loving companionship. For the Christian, marriage is a commitment both to God and to his spouse, and this step should be given only by people who share the same faith. Mutual love, honor, respect and responsibility are the plot and warp of this relationship, which should reflect the love, holiness, intimacy and endurance of the relationship between Christ and his church. Regarding divorce, Jesus taught that the person who divorces, unless it is because of fornication and marries another, commits adultery. Although some family relationships are far from ideal, partners in the marriage relationship who fully consecrate themselves to one another in Christ can achieve a loving unity thanks to the guidance of the Spirit and the loving care of the Church. God blesses the family and it is his purpose that his members help each other to reach full maturity. Parents must raise their children to love and obey the Lord. By precept and example they should teach them that Christ is lovingly disciplined, always tender and cares for his creatures, and that he wants them to become members of his body, the family of God. A growing family intimacy is one of the characteristic features of the last Gospel message. (Genesis 2: 18-25, Matthew 19: 3-9, John 2: 1-11, 2 Corinthians 6:14, Ephesians 5: 21-33, Matthew 5: 31-32, Mark 10: 11-12, Luke 16:18, 1 Corinthians 7: 10-11, Exodus 20:12, Ephesians 6: 1-4, Deuteronomy 6: 5-9, Proverbs 22: 6, Malachi 4: 5, 6).


24. The ministry of Christ in the heavenly sanctuary.

There is a sanctuary in heaven, the true tabernacle that the Lord erected and not man. In him Christ ministers on our behalf, to make available to the believers the benefits of his atoning sacrifice offered once and for all on the cross. He became our great High Priest and began his intercessory ministry on the occasion of his ascension. In 1844, at the end of the prophetic period of 2,300 days, he entered the second and last phase of his atoning ministry. This work is an investigative judgment that is part of the final elimination of sin, typified by the purification of the ancient Hebrew sanctuary on the day of atonement. In the symbolic service the sanctuary was purified by the blood of animal sacrifices, but the heavenly things were purified by the perfect sacrifice of the blood of Jesus. The investigative judgment reveals to the heavenly intelligences who among the dead sleep in Christ and therefore will be considered worthy, in him, to participate in the first resurrection. It also clarifies who among the living are dwelling in Christ, keeping the commandments of God and the faith of Jesus, and in him, therefore they will be ready to be translated into his eternal kingdom. This judgment vindicates the justice of God in saving those who believe in Jesus. Declare that those who remained loyal to God will receive the kingdom. The conclusion of this ministry of Christ will mark the end of the probationary time granted to human beings before their second coming (Hebrews 8: 1-5; 4: 1416; 9: 11-28; 10: 19-22; 1: 3; 2:16, 17; Daniel 7: 9-27; 8: 13-14; 9: 24-27; Numbers 14:34; Ezekiel 4: 6; Leviticus 16; Revelation 14: 6-7; 20:12 : 14:12; 22:12).

25. The second coming of Christ.

The second coming of Christ is the blessed hope of the church, the great culmination of the gospel. The coming of the Savior will be literal, personal, visible and worldwide in scope. When he returns, the righteous dead will be resurrected and together with the living righteous they will be glorified and taken to heaven, but the wicked will die. The fact that most of the prophecies are reaching their full fulfillment, together with the current conditions of the world, indicates that the coming of Christ is imminent. The moment when this event will occur has not been revealed, and therefore we are exhorted to be prepared at all times (Titus 2:13, Hebrews 9:28, John 14: 1-3, Acts 1: 9-11, Matthew). 24:14, Revelation 1: 7, Matthew 24: 43-44, 1 Thessalonians 4: 13-18, 1 Corinthians 15: 51-54, 2 Thessalonians 1: 7-10, 2: 8, Revelation 14: 14-20 ; 19: 11-21; Matthew 24; Mark 13; Luke 21; 2 Timothy 3: 1-5; 1 Thessalonians 5: 1-6).

26. Death and resurrection.

The wages of sin is death. But God, the only one who is immortal, will grant eternal life to his redeemed ones. Until that day, death constitutes a state of unconsciousness for all who have died. When Christ, who is our life, appears, the resurrected righteous and the righteous living will be glorified and all together will be raptured to meet their Lord. The second resurrection, the resurrection of the wicked, will occur a thousand years later (Romans 6:23, 1 Timothy 6: 15-16, Ecclesiastes 9: 5-6, Psalm 146: 3-4, John 11: 11-14, Colossians 3: 4, 1 Corinthians 15: 51-54, 1 Thessalonians 4: 13-17, John 5: 28-29, Revelation 20: 1-10).

27. The millennium and the end of sin.

The millennium is the thousand-year reign of Christ with his saints in heaven that extends between the first and second resurrections. During that time the wicked will be judged; the earth will be completely desolate, without human inhabitants, but occupied by Satan and his angels. At the end of that period, Christ and his saints, together with the Holy City, will descend from heaven to earth. The dead wicked will rise then, and together with Satan and his angels they will surround the city; but the fire of God will consume them and purify the earth. In this way the universe will be freed from sin and sinners forever (Revelation 20, 1 Corinthians 6: 2-3, Jeremiah 4: 23-26, Revelation 21: 1-5, Malachi 4: 1, Ezekiel 28:18 -19).

28. The new earth.

In the new earth, where the righteous will dwell, God will provide an eternal home for the redeemed and a perfect environment for life, love and endless joy, and to learn together with his presence. Because there God himself will dwell with his people, and suffering and death will end forever. The great conflict will be over and sin will no longer exist. All things, animate and inanimate, will declare that God is love, and he will reign forever and ever. Amen (2 Peter 3:13; Isaiah 35; 65: 17-25; Matthew 5: 5; Revelation 21: 1-7; 22: 1-5; 11:15)